Temple in Macau

-Ma Temple (Chinese: China: Jyutping: MAA1 Gok3 Miu6; pinyin: Mage Miao, Portuguese Templo de-MA), which is located on the southwestern tip of the peninsula of Macao, is one of the oldest and most famous Taoist temples in Macao. Built in 1488, the temple is dedicated to Matsu, the goddess of seafarers and fishermen.

Macao's name is thought to have derived the name of the temple. It is said that when Portuguese sailors landed on the coast, outside the temple and asked the name of the place, the natives replied  (Jyutping "Maa1 Gok3"). The Portuguese then named the peninsula "Macao". The temple has been well described in ancient Chinese texts, as shown in the tables. It is also one of the first scenes filmed in China.

In 2005, the temple has become one of the headquarters of the Historic Center of Macao designated joined the World Heritage List.

Electric-Car Charging Stations

It's a chicken and egg problem with electric cars: up there is a network of roads built chargers (see No. 17) or a series of stations where motorists can recharge their batteries - similar to gas stations we rely on today - an electric car is inherently limited. Coulomb Technologies is working to break the deadlock. The company is building a system of self-charging in public places that are connected to utilities, so the price of your load can be added to your energy bill. And if your utility has partnered with Coulomb, you can call a toll free number and pay with your credit card.

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Macau Tower

Macau Tower Convention & Entertainment Centre (Chinese: , Portugal: Centro de Convencoes entretenimento e da Torre de Macau), also known as the Macau Tower is a tower located in the former Portuguese colony of Macao, now a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. The tower is 338 meters (1109 feet) from ground level to highest point. An observation deck with panoramic views, restaurants, theaters, shopping malls and Skywalk X, a thrilling walking tour around the outer edge. It offers the best view of Macau and in recent years has been used for a number of exciting activities. A 233-meter Macau Tower captive "SkyJump" and AJ Hackett Bungee jump from the outer edge of the tower, the second highest in the world trade SkyJump after SkyJump Stratosphere Las Vegas "of 260 meters. The tower was designed by the architects Craig Craig Moller.

The tower is a member of the World Federation of Great Towers. Besides being used for observation and entertainment, the tower is also used for telecommunications and broadcasting.

Antro Electric Car

The car in the future, now from Hungary. Yes, it sounds like Communist propaganda about 1967, but the Hungarian Antro designer could have just made a superefficient, super-cheap car that could put the western producers to shame. The Antro Solo can accommodate up to three people - one driver and two passengers, one on each side - which foot to help drive the car lightweight. The rest of the way forward has an electric motor which is partly powered by solar panels. If you need a big car, Antro has a solution: two solos can be combined, Transformers-style, to create families Duo. Look for it in 2012.

Macau's casinos are a big draw

Gambling in Macau has been legal since the 1850s when the Portuguese government legalized the activity in the colony. Since Macau has become known worldwide as "Monte Carlo of the Orient".

Tourism gambling in Macao is the largest source of income, which represents about 50% of the economy. The visits consist primarily of mainland Chinese nationals and Hong Kong. After the entry of large foreign casinos in Las Vegas and Australia, Macao surpassed the Las Vegas Strip gaming revenues in 2007.

Until western casino was introduced in the 20th century, only the Chinese games, the most popular Fan-Tan. Generally, gambling in Macao is divided into three different categories: casino games, horse racing and greyhound. There are also sports paris and a number of lotteries. Today, Macau is not allowed the operation of online games.

Edison2

Perhaps the best way to make a more fuel efficient car is to make it lighter. Concept vehicle designers have Edison2 automatic mode until the end. The car - as aerodynamic as she is anorexic - weighs less than 800 pounds, which helps you get 102.5 miles per gallon This was good enough to share the Progressive Insurance Automotive X-Prize, a prize designed to encourage the development of production ready cars that are super-efficient fuel. Unfortunately, the team owner Oliver Kuttner Edison2 said he did not see the car at the dealership before. But it is a sign of hope for a bit of oil in the future.

Martin Jetpack

Each description of traffic as a Buck Rogers future includes a jet pack, then who we mess with the invention of the Convention? Martin Jetpack is set as the first practical jet pack on the planet - as if it were a sort of air Swiffer. New Zealand inventor Glenn Martin has spent nearly 30 years to develop a successor, but has proved impractical Bell Rocket Belt, which flew in 1961.

Version of Martin does not seem practical: he is apparently welded to two enormous leaves fans together and thrown into harness. But the frame houses made of carbon fiber composite for gasoline, 200 hp engine - more power than the Honda Accord - which is to change a pair of Kevlar-carbon rotors. In theory, Martin Jetpack can make the operator up to 8000 feet Why is just 30 minutes worth of fuel, even if you do not want to linger. Commercial applications can be for first responders as soon as possible. Jetpack sells about





Google's Driverless Car

This is a autoautomobile? A aut2.0mobile? Whatever you call it, Google new Prius - covered with radar sensors, video cameras and a laser rangefinder - 140.000 miles was not an unexpected encounter with a lamppost. Squads other driverless vehicles running geeks in the California desert for years, in part, at the request of the Department of Defense. But Google can only REV mapping technology to guide your car suck petabyte along busy streets and highways. The goal is security - an admirable given a million deaths, in addition to the world of cars each year. Driverless technology is logical and effective, and in the near future, it could transform your stress-free trip on motorized transport on a couch. The sad thing for the unity of the pigs: If Google is successful in marketing its technology to manufacturers of automobiles, which can never return the bird to another driver.



Macau at night

Clubbing scene is thriving, slowly but surely, new in town, put hostess bars cheesy and tacky, located on the Strip casino to shame. The pub crawl to Lan Kwai Fong, where the bars are close together, so as to be sure your feet when the next port is easy. For something a little higher market Docs and bars of the casino is an ideal place to enjoy a martini at the chic environment, albeit expensive. In line with the rest of Asia, karaoke is popular in both private and open spaces can be enjoyed when Serena Ding friends or the general public.

Read more: Evening Macao -

Amtrak's Beef-Powered Train

Compared to its modern counterparts in Europe and Japan, Amtrak is not a font of innovation. But its Heartland Flyer - a daily service between Oklahoma City and Fort Worth, Texas - Amtrak has taken tentative steps toward a green, low carbon future. Heartland Flyer from the spring run on 20% biodiesel instead of carbon-heavy fuel oil as in other Amtrak trains - except the Acela Express power - currently operates. Biodiesel reduces air pollution and help cash-strapped Amtrak save fuel. And appropriately for a train in the country of the cow is biodiesel made from rendered fat of cattle. Biodiesel from beef is cleaner than the biodiesel plant, although it can not be extendable beyond the belt of beef.


Sony Alpha A55 Camera

AKA the camera flashes. Traditional DSLR take the best pictures around, but are hampered by technical limitations of decades-old: when taking a picture, the mirror image was redirecting to the eye and momentarily seems to focus sensor and image capture. Until it falls off, the camera can not focus. Sony Alpha A55 ($ 849.99 with a lens) with a mirror translucent patch looks great position. This means it can take up to 10 frames per second recording perfectly focused and HD video than ever blurred. Enjoy bonus: no need to allocate space on the inside of a moving mirror, the Alpha is significantly smaller and lighter than their brothers Sony SLR.





Square


It may be a more mature piece of technology to upgrade the desktop machine. Anna Square, the payment platform created by Twitter co-founder Jack Dorsey. With the support of a small magnetic card reader connected to the square smartphone allows anyone to process credit cards. It will not be able to completely eliminate the paper - a lot of people still prefer cash - but certainly there is no need to wait for a receipt: write on the screen, and Piazza send a copy directly to e-mail.

Read more: http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0, 28804.2029497 _2030652_2029712, 00.html # ixzz1W1LHYo7r


Kickstarter

Think crowdsourcing Kickstarter as charity - a site where anyone can donate sums of money to develop the project with no money change hands until the minimum is met. Case in point: California Magen Callaghan wanted to launch a new animated half-human, half zombie character. Create and market the first question, an estimated cost of $ 1500, so he wrote a letter to hand, and ordered a sliding scale donations. (Five bucks to get a signed copy, $ 100 prize purse of zombies.) It 'was only after passing the $ 1,500 as a reference point for its commitments were called to a further proof that this strategy works: the story of EyeWriter success (see No. 49), launched by the starter football. It is a low risk, fund-raising base - $ 1 at a time.


Luang Prabang, Laos

Luang Prabang, or Louangphrabang (Lao: ຫຼວງ ພຣະ ບາງ, literally: "Royal Buddha image (mudra dispelling fear)," pronounced [luaŋtone missing), is a city located in north-central Laos, the Nam Khan river meets the river Mekong, about 425 km (264 miles) north of Vientiane. And 'the capital of the province of Luang Prabang. The city's population today is around 103 000 loan for

The city was once the capital of a kingdom of the same name. Until the arrival of the communists in 1975, she was the royal capital and seat of government of the Kingdom of Laos. The city is also known as World Heritage Site.

Most of the city consists of four main roads is on a peninsula between the Mekong and Nam Khan. The city is known for its many temples and Buddhist monasteries. Every morning hundreds of monks from different monasteries, walking the streets collecting alms. One of the most important monuments of the city is a big steep hill, which is Wat Si Chom.

Looxcie

Just when you thought you'd seen it all - and recorded - Looxcie, a camera is used in the ear, raise. Invented by a father who was fumbling with video cameras, while trying to save children's parties, Looxcie can capture everything the user sees a maximum of five hours, hands-free. And with the push of a button, a clip of the last 30 seconds of the movie can be sent to a page on Facebook, YouTube or a preset email - Looxcie making the device perfect for the age of audio-video oversharing.Read more: http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0, 28804.2029497 _2030652_2029803, 00.html # ixzz1W1K9plqh

Bhuddas in Pak Ou Caves, Laos

Near Pak Ou (mouth of the River O) Tham Ting (lower cave) and Tham Theung (upper cave) are the caves overlooking the Mekong River, 25 km from Luang Prabang, Laos. They are a group of caves in the left side of the Mekong River, about two hours upriver from the center of Luang Prabang, and became very popular with tourists. The caves are known for their miniature sculptures of Buddha. Hundreds of wooden figures mostly very small and damaged Buddhists are arranged on the wall shelves. They come in different positions, including meditation, education, peace, rain and reclining (Nirvana).

Flipboard

Even if you do not dowry on Facebook and Twitter, to spend time with their desire to target in front of thousands of distinction updates from your friends - an exhilarating, perhaps, but also exhausting. IPAD Killer Flipboard taken to end the chaos, news images and links to friends and other interesting people, then initialize all wonderfully browsable, magazine-like format. You can also add feeds from your favorite blogs and websites and share items with friends through social media and e-mail. His images of large, sharp typography, digital publishing is a bright, which seems like it would be delivered to you for your friend.


iPad

How to keep away from Apple to come up with any other field of technology? Often, it is to develop a category of products of its competitors have given up. In theory, the iPad is simply the continuation of this spectacularly unpopular slate-style computers, Tablet PCs at Microsoft. But Apple is the first company, which is designed for finger-friendly hardware and software from scratch, instead of filling your case keyboardless PC. When he calls the results "magic" and "revolutionary", it distorts the reality of a little '. An analyst says that the iPad is the best-selling consumer price nonphone gizmo-electronics history.

Wat Xieng Thong in Luang Prabang, Laos

Wat Xieng Thong, "Monastery of the City of Gold" is the religious emblem of Luang Prabang and one of the greatest symbols of Buddhism in Laos, which was why I was spared the ravages of 1887.

Built in 1560 by King Setthathirat was considered as the reference architecture of Luang Prabang with a very acute low Vihan very low (more information in the article on religious architecture.)

As a symbol of the city, the name of the pagoda can be written several ways:

- Wat Xieng Thong

- Wat Xiang Thong

- Wat Thong Sieng

- Etc..

X-RAYS

X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm von Konrad Roentgen (1845-1923). Roentgen was a German physicist who described this new type of radiation, which allows him to describe the objects that were hidden behind opaque screens. He also described as part of its skeleton. X-rays were used soon as an important diagnostic tool in medicine. Roentgen called these waves "X rays", because so little was known about their

MICROSCOPE

The microscope may have been invented by eyeglass makers in Middelburg, The Netherlands, invented sometime between 1590 and 1610. Hans and his son Zacharias Janssen are mentioned in the letters of William Boreel ( the Dutch envoy to the Court of France) as having invented a 20X magnification microscope.

Robert Hooke used an early microscope to observe slices of cork (bark from the oak tree) using a 30X power compound microscope. He published his observations in "Microgphia" in 1665. In 1673, Antony van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic protists, sperm cells, blood cells, etc., using a 300X power single lens microscope.

A Wife

By getting married you are not just getting a wife, you are getting your whole world. From now until the rest of your days your wife will be your partner, your companion, and your best friend.
She will share your moments, your days, and your years. She will share your joys and sorrows, your successes and failures, your dreams and your fears. When you are ill, she will take the best care of you; when you need help, she will do all she can for you;
When you have a secret, she will keep it; when you need advice, she will give you the best advice. She will always be with you: when you wake up in the morning the first thing your eyes will see will be hers; during the day, she will be with you, if for a moment she is not with you by her physical body, she will be thinking of you, praying for you with all her heart, mind, and soul; when you go to sleep at night, the last thing your eyes will see will be her; and when you are asleep you will still see her in your dreams. In short, she will be your whole world and you will be her whole world.
The best description that I personally have ever read describing the closeness of the spouses to each other is the Qur'anic verse which says: "they are your garments and you are their garments" (Surah Al Baqarah 2:187). Indeed, spouses are like garments to each other because they provide one another with the protection, the comfort, the cover, the support, and the adornment that garments provide to humans. Just imagine a journey in the winter of Alaska without garments! Our spouses provide us with the same level of comfort, protection, cover, and support in the journey of our lives on this earth as garments would do in the Alaskan journey.
The relationship between the spouses is the most amazing of all human relations: the amount of love and affection, intimacy and closeness, mercy and compassion, peace and tranquillity that fills the hearts of the spouses is simply inexplicable. The only rational explanation for these most amazing of all human feelings is that: it is an act of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala, "And Allah has made for you Mates (and Companions) of your own nature ..." (Surah Al Nahl 16:72) Only our Almighty Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala in His Infinite Power, Boundless Mercy, and Great Wisdom can create and ingrain these amazing and blessed feelings in the hearts of the spouses. In fact Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala is reminding those who search for His signs in the universe that these feelings in the hearts of the spouses are among the signs that should guide humans to His existence as He says in the Qur'an, "And among His signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves that you may dwell in tranquillity with them and He has put love and mercy between your hearts: verily in that are signs for those who reflect." (Surah Al Rum 30:21)
But Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala knows that the human heart is not a static entity, it is sometimes weak and at times dynamic. Feelings can and do change with time. Love may wither and fade away. The marital bond might weaken if not properly cared for. Happiness in marriage cannot be taken for granted; continuous happiness requires constant giving from both sides. For the tree of marital love to remain alive and keep growing, the soil has to be sustained, maintained, watered and nurtured.
Remember that our Prophet Muhammad Salallaahu 'aliahi wa'sallaam had found the time to go out to the desert and race with his wife Aisha. She out ran him but later after she had gained some weight, he out ran her.
Remember that the Prophet Salallaahu 'aliahi wa'sallaam took his wife to watch the young Ethiopians playing and dancing their folk dances. The show of emotions is necessary to keep the marital bond away from rusting and disintegrating.
Remember that you will be rewarded by Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala for any emotions you show to your wife as the Prophet Salallaahu 'aliahi wa'sallaam said "one would be rewarded for anything that he does seeking the pleasure of Allah even the food that he puts in the mouth of his wife."
Never underestimate the importance of seemingly little things as putting food in your wife's mouth, opening the car's door for her, etc. Remember that the Prophet Salallaahu 'aliahi wa'sallaam used to extend his knee to his wife to assist her up to ride the camel.
Try to always find some time for both of you to pray together. Strengthening the bond between you and Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala is the best guarantee that your own marital bond would always remain strong. Having peace with Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala will always result in having more peace at home.
Remember that the Prophet Salallaahu 'aliahi wa'sallaam gave glad tidings for those couples who wake up at night to pray together. The Prophet Salallaahu 'aliahi wa'sallaam even urged the spouse who rises up first to wake the other spouse up even by throwing cold water on his/her face.
Always try your best to be good to your wife by words and by deeds. Talk to her, smile to her, seek her advice, ask for her opinion, spend quality time with her and always remember that the Prophet Salallaahu 'aliahi wa'sallaam said "the best of you are those who are best to their wives."
Finally, it is common that spouses vow to love and honor their spouses until death do them part. I do believe that this vow is good or even great, but not enough! It is not enough that you love your wife. You have to love what she loves as well. Her family, her loved ones must also become your loved ones. Don't be like my colleague who was unhappy about his wife's parents coming to visit for few weeks. He candidly said to her "I don't like your parents." Naturally, she angrily looked at him straight in the eye and said " I don't like yours either"... Also, it is not enough that you love her until death do you part. Love should never end and we do believe there is life after death where those who did righteousness in this world will be joined by their spouses (Surah Al Zukhruf 43:70) and offsprings.
The best example in this regard is the Prophet Salallaahu 'aliahi wa'sallaam whose love for Khadija, his wife of 25 years extended to include all those she loved and continued even after her death. It was many years after her death and he never forgot her and whenever a goat was slaughtered in his house he would send portions of it to Khadija's family and friends and whenever he felt that the visitor at the door might be Khadija's sister Hala, he would pray saying "O Allah let it be Hala."

Radio Astronomy


Karl Gothe Jansky (1905-1949) was an American radio engineer who pioneered and developed radio astronomy. In 1932, he detected the first radio waves from a cosmic source - in the central region of the Milky Way Galaxy.

ENIAC

ENIAC stands for "electronic numerical integrator and computer." He was one of the first all-purpose, all digital electronic computers. This room-sized computer was built by the physicist John William Mauchly (August 30, 1907 - January 8, 1980) and the electrical engineer John Prespes Eckert, Jr. (April 9, 1919 - June 3, 1995) at the University of Pennsylvania. They finished the machine in November 1945.

Electric Light

Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829) was an English scientist who invented the first electric light in 1800. He experimented with electricity and invented an electric battery. When he connected the son of his two-piece carbon battery, the electric arc between carbon parts, producing a bright light and warm, and short-lived. This is called an arc. Davy also invented a safety helmet of a minor and a process for desalination of seawater Davy discovered the elements boron, sodium, aluminum (whose name was later changed to aluminum), and potassium.

Vang Vieng, Laos

Vang Vieng (Laos: it is a tourist city of Laos, located in the Vientiane province about four hours by bus north of the capital is situated on the Nam Song River, the most notable feature of the area is karst hills around it .. town.One key elements of the city is a large airstrip unused essentially parallel to the road. It was used during the Vietnam War aircraft from Air America (the track was then called the "Lima Site 6"). The city has significantly increased following the influx of backpackers in recent years, with the potential for adventure tourism in an incredible landscape has attracted tourists more.

COMPOUND MICROSCOPE

Zacharias Janssen was a Dutch lens-author, who invented the first compound microscope in 1595 (light microscopy is one that is more than one goal). His microscope consists of two attitudes to slip into one another, and stopped at the ends of the lens. Microscope is focused on pushing the tubes. Ocular lens is convex (bulging outwards on both sides), and the back of the lens (objective lens) was a plano-convex (flat on one side and bulging outwards on the opposite side). This advanced microscope had 3-9 times the magnification. Zacharias Janssen father Hans may have helped to build the microscope.

The International Council on Nanotechnology (ICON)




The International Council on Nanotechnology (ICON)

The International Council on Nanotechnology (ICON) is an international organization, group of stakeholders committed to developing and communicating information about health and environmental risks of nanotechnology, thereby fostering risk reduction and maximize benefits society. ICON is composed of people from academia, industrial countries, governmental and non governmental organizations in nanotechnology research and development of high activity. ICON is an organization of technical training and not to defend or commercial interests.

BAROMETER

A barometer is a device that measures air (atmospheric pressure). It measures the weight of the column of air extending from the instrument to the top of the atmosphere. There are two types of barometers commonly used today, mercury and aneroid (meaning "fluidless"). Water former barometers (also known as "storm glasses") date from the 17th century. The mercury barometer was invented by Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli (1608 - 1647), a disciple of Galileo in 1643. Torricelli inverted a glass tube filled with mercury into another container of mercury, the mercury in the tube "weighs" the air of the atmosphere above the tube. The aneroid barometer (using a spring balance instead of a liquid) was invented by French scientist Lucien Vidie in 1843.

ANEMOMETER

The anemometer is a device that measures wind speed (or airflow, as in a wind tunnel). The first anemometer, a disc placed perpendicular to the wind, was invented in 1450 by Italian architect Leon Battista Alberti. Robert Hooke, English physicist, later reinvented the anemometer. In 1846, John Thomas Romney Robinson, Irish physicist, invented the cup anemometer spins. In this device, the cups are attached to a vertical axis, when the cups spin in the wind, leading a march at once.

MARRIAGE Concept in Islam

By getting married you are not just getting a wife, you are getting your whole world. From now until the rest of your days your wife will be your partner, your companion, and your best friend.
She will share your moments, your days, and your years. She will share your joys and sorrows, your successes and failures, your dreams and your fears. When you are ill, she will take the best care of you; when you need help, she will do all she can for you;
When you have a secret, she will keep it; when you need advice, she will give you the best advice. She will always be with you: when you wake up in the morning the first thing your eyes will see will be hers; during the day, she will be with you, if for a moment she is not with you by her physical body, she will be thinking of you, praying for you with all her heart, mind, and soul; when you go to sleep at night, the last thing your eyes will see will be her; and when you are asleep you will still see her in your dreams. In short, she will be your whole world and you will be her whole world.

National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE)




National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE)

Finnish Science and the Environment (NCSE) is a non-profit organization, which must be made to improve the scientific basis for environmental decision-making. Although a supporter of science and its use, NCSE has not taken a position on environmental policy.

NCSE specializes in programs that bring together various individuals, institutions and communities work together, especially in many communities to create and use knowledge of the environment, including research, education, environment, and business organizations and government at all levels.

NCSE operates programs in five areas:

1. Scientific solutions - programs that engage diverse communities to deploy science to make decisions on specific issues. This includes the National Commission on Science for Sustainable Forestry and Wildlife Habitat Policy Research Program.

2. Strengthening education - which includes an affiliate program of the University (~ 160 member schools) with a Council of Deans and Directors of the environment and , a mentoring program for high school students

3. National conference on science, politics and the environment

4th Encyclopedia of Earth. Nose acts as secretariat for the Environmental Information Coalition, which is to build the Encyclopedia of Earth.

5th Science policy - which aims to strengthen understanding and support of environmental science and its application, and programs that make it possible. Nose played a crucial role in stimulating the initiative of the National Science Foundation to triple its annual budget for environmental research, education and scientific assessment

TIME ZONES

The Earth is divided into 24 time zones so that each world can be more or less similar programs (such as the south is more or less when the sun reaches its zenith in the sky). The idea of ​​sharing the earth into time zones proposed by the designer and the Canadian railway engineer Sir Sandford Fleming in late 1870.

RAZOR SCOOTER

The Razor scooter folding scooter is a new and very popular. It was invented by a team of people at the JD Corp. (a company that sells bicycle parts and electric scooters aluminum Changhua, Taiwan, Republic of China). Gino Tsai, president of the company, wanted to find a way around their factory floors faster (he says it is a slow walker and he needed a more efficient way to move). It took about five years for the team to develop their current model, which uses aircraft-grade aluminum and polyurethane wheels. It was introduced in 1998 at the NSGA World Sports Expo, when Tsai slipped into the show, attracting the attention of Sharper Image Corp., who ordered the first Razor scooters. The scooters quickly became popular worldwide.

RADAR

The first practical radar system was invented in 1935, the Scottish physicist Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt (13 April 1892-05 December 1973). He developed radar to help track storms in order to keep the aircraft safe. His invention has contributed to the end of the Second World War allies win 2 against the Germans.

Radar stands for radio detection and ranging instruments. The radar is to detect distant objects by sending out radio waves and analyzing the return of ECHO. Radar can determine where a distant object, how big it is, the format is, how fast it moves and what direction it is going. The radar is now used to watch the development of climate models, air traffic control, track ships at sea, and to detect missiles.

MOTORCYCLE

The first bike was a motorcycle coal, two-cylinder steam, which was developed in 1867 by the American inventor Sylvester Howard Roper. A motorcycle fuel was invented by Gottlieb Daimler German inventor in 1885. His bike most of ironwood bands had wooden spoke wheels. This vehicle crunching bones was powered by a single cylinder engine

radio

National Registry of Environmental Professionals (NREP)




National Registry of Environmental Professionals (NREP)

The National Registry of Environmental Professionals (PNER) is higher in the U.S. governmental organization for accreditation of the environment, and is recognized by the U.S. Department Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency. PNER has about 12,000 members worldwide, including managers, technicians and other professionals working in the operation and management related to regulatory issues such as compliance with pollution standards, air, soil and water.

HOT-AIR BALLOON

hot-air balloon
A balloon is a balloon filled with hot air, it rises because hot air is less dense (lighter) than the rest of the air. Joseph and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier were two French generation that made the first ball successfully. Their first balloon was launched in December 1782, and is mounted at a height of 985 ft (300 m). This type of ball was called Montgolfier, it was made of paper and use air heated by burning wool and wet straw. The first passengers in a hot air balloon were a rooster, a sheep and a duck, the Montgolfier brothers sent up to a height of 1640 feet (500 m), September 19, 1783 (the trip took 8 minutes) animals survived the landing. This event was observed by King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette of France.

Reflecting Telescope

John Hadley (1682-1744) was an English mathematician and inventor who built the first reflecting telescope and invented an improved quadrant (known as Hadley's quadrant) used in navigation. Hadley Rille, a long valley on the surface of the moon, was named for Hadley.

GYROSCOPE


Gyroscope is essentially a spinning wheel set of the mobile frame. When the wheel turns, keeps the target area, and it takes external forces to it. Gyroscopes used in navigation (ships, aircraft and rockets). Jean Bernard Leon Foucault (1819-1868), French physicist, invented the gyroscope in 1852.


Gyroscope

ELEVATOR BRAKE


Elisha Graves Otis (1811-1861) invented the elevator brake, which greatly improved the safety of elevators. He used a ratchet on a spring to catch the elevator in case of accidents (such as a broken cable).

In 1854 the Crystal Palace exhibition in New York, Otis demonstrated how safe his elevator was by cutting the cable of the elevator with an ax, and the elevator car stayed where it was the tree. Otis 'invention' encouraged the development of skyscrapers, the appearance of towns and cities around the world forever.


Ak-orda Presidential Palace, Astana

Ak Orda (Kazakhstan, "a flock of white"), the Presidential Palace is the workplace of the President of Kazakhstan. Ak Orda Presidential Palace was built in three years, and officially opened in 2004. It 'was built by a group Mabetex.

Located on the left bank of the Ishim (Aprons) river, is the president of a job and the presidential administration staff, not the president's residence. Building is blue and gold dome on the tower. This is a golden statue atop the dome of a sun with 32 rays on the tip, and the steppe eagle flying across the sun.

The height of the building (including the tower) is 80 meters. The first floor includes a large central room, the press conference room, the ceremonial room, and the Winter Garden. The second floor has offices, while the third floor is used for international events, including several rooms (Marble Hall, Golden Hall, oval room, oriental lounge, built in the shape of a yurt, the negotiating room extended). The fourth floor includes a meeting room and public leadership for the Government of the Republic, and the library.

Gold is high throughout the complex and twenty kinds of marble used for floor models.

COMPASS

The earliest known compass originated in China, the Han dynasty (2 nd century BC - 2nd century AD). Early this compass is made of magnetic, magnetic, of course, a variety of mineral magnetite. Spoon-shaped piece of magnetic resonance has been set, bronze plate, and magnetic resonance always pointed north. This early compass was not used for navigation at first, was used to predict (like Feng Shui), to determine an arbitrary placement of buildings, etc.

Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER)




Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER)

Public Services for Environmental Responsibility (PEER) is a 501 (c) (3) nonprofit, the organization of environmental protection of local resources and natural state and national government for environmental professionals. PEER is a resource for potential whistleblowers of government, allowing them to expose the harmful environment and contribute anonymously to the correction agency retaliation. Founded in 1996, PEER works primarily for the processing of applications for public sector employees in the government's fault on the environment. Because whistleblowers often face direct retaliation of the participating organizations, peer encourages employees to work through the organization to reveal the government's environmental damage. Once a claim is made, the PEER survey, often with requests for access to information. The organization may choose to take a series of actions, including press releases and legal procedures.

PEER is also used to provide legal services to complainants who are the target of agency retaliation.

Astana

Astana Cycling Team For since in the latter part of 2006, see again the cycling team.

Astana Cycling Team Astana, pro-logo1.jpg

Information Team

UCI Code AST

Based on Switzerland 2007

Luxembourg 2008

Kazakhstan 2009 -

Founded 2007 (2007)

UCI ProTeam status

Bicycles Specialized Bicycle Components

Key Individuals

The executive director Giuseppe Martinelli

The history of the computer name

2007 - Astana

Astana Jersey 2011.gif

This season

V ‡ D · E

Astana (UCI Team Code: AST) is a team of professional bicycle racing team sponsored by Astana, a coalition of state-owned companies from Kazakhstan, named after its capital, Astana. UCI Astana has reached its position in the first year, 2007. After a doping scandal important, Kazakh Alexander Vinokourov the cyclist, the management team has been completed and the new management has brought the 2008 season. The team was then managed by Johan Bruyneel, a former U.S. Postal team leader / team Discovery Channel. While in Astana, Bruyneel was a great success, with the composition, the winners of the Grand Tour, Alberto Contador and Lance Armstrong, Levi Leipheimer as well as runners, and Andreas Klöden, the team was on the brink of economic collapse in May 2009 . Control combat team of Vinokourov in the Vuelta Espana return Bruyneel 2009 and caused at least fourteen pilots to leave at the end of 2009 season, most in the RadioShack team. Only four Spanish riders, including Contador, and most of the Kazakhs left the team in 2010. These four Spaniards left the team throughout the Saxo Bank, SunGard in 2011.

CAT'S EYE ROAD REFLECTOR

Cat eye road reflector is a simple device that has saved countless lives. These inexpensive glass and rubber reflectors placed on the roadway at regular intervals, and to help motorists see where the road is at night. Each cat eyes reflect the incoming light, which acts as the lights to set the path. This device was invented in 1933, Percy Shaw, from Yorkshire, England. He invented it after he had been driving on a dark and winding road is a foggy night, he was spared to go to the hill half a cat, whose eyes reflected the lights of his car. Shaw's invention is to imitate the reflectivity of the cat's eyes. Because of his invention, Shaw received the Order of the British Empire ("OBE"), Queen Elizabeth of England in 1965.

Steam Boat

Henry Bell (1767-1830) was a Scottish engineer and inventor who built a steamboat in 1812. Its 12 feet (3.5 meters) steam, called the comet was the first commercially successful steamship in Europe. This boat has sailed regularly between Glasgow and Greenock (Scotland) along the River Clyde. Comet was the beginning of a revolution in navigation

BEHAIM, MARTIN

Martin Behaim (1459-1537) was a German mapmaker, navigator, and merchant. Behaim is the first planet, called the "Globe of Nuremberg." It was made in the year 1490-1492, the painter Georg Glockendon helped with this project. Behaim had sailed to Portugal as a merchant (in 1480). He had advised King John II on matters concerning navigation. He accompanied the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cam (CAD) for a journey from 1485 to 1486 in the West African coast, the journey from the mouth of the river Congo was discovered.

BATHYSPHERE

Bathysphere a metal ball pressure that allows people to go deep into the sea, diving to a depth that is impossible without help. This hollow cast iron ball drops very thick walls and raised the ship with a steel cable. Bathysphere invented by William Beebe and Otis Barton (about 1930). William Beebe (1877 - 1962), American naturalist and underwater explorer, bathysphere tested in 1930, falling to 1426 feet 4'9 "(1.45 m) diameter bathysphere Beebe and Otis Barton descended about 3,000 feet (914 meters) yards high. bathysphere in 1934. landed on the coast of Nonsuch Island, Bermuda in the Atlantic Ocean. During the dive, they communicate with the surface over the phone.

ASTROLABE


An astrolabe is an instrument that was used to determine the altitude of objects in the sky (like the sun or stars). It was first used around 200 B.C. by astronomers in Greece. The astrolabe was replaced by the sextant

Resources for the Future (RFF)




Resources for the Future (RFF)

Future (RFF) is a non-profit organization that makes an independent investigation of the environment, energy and natural resource problems, primarily through the economy and other social sciences. The company is headquartered in Washington, DC, RFF conducts research around the world. In 1952, the Institute is recognized as a pioneer in the field of resource economics.

ASSEMBLY LINE

Primitive assembly line production was used in 1901 Ransome Eli Olds (1864-1950), one of the first car-maker (he manufactured Oldsmobile, the first commercially successful American car). Henry Ford (1863-1947) first used in a conveyor belt based on its car factory in 1913-14 Ford Highland Park, Michigan plant. This type of production greatly reduces the time to put each car together (93 minutes, the Model T) of its parts, reducing production costs. Assembly lines are now used in most production processes.

Model T car

Kelsu lake in the Tien Shan Mountains

Tian Shan (China: 天山, pinyin: Tian Shan, literally "celestial mountains" Mongol: Тэнгэр уул, Tenger Uul; Uighur: تەڭرى تاغ July: Tengri Tagh), also spelled Tien Shan, is a major mountain system located in Central Asia. The highest peak in the Tian Shan is Victoria Peak (Jengish Chokusu), 7439 meters (24,406 feet).

The Chinese name Tian Shan can be derived from the name Qilian Xiongnu (祁连), which was seen by Yuezhi Shiji as the homeland, and is said to refer to the Tian Shan, rather than the range of 1500 km (930 mi) to the east now known by that name. The proximity Tannu-Ola Mountains (Tuvan: Таңды-Уула Tangdy-Uula) has the same name ("Heaven / Heavenly Mountain" or "god / spirit mountain").

ANDERSON, MARY

The wiper was invented by Mary Anderson in 1903 to help streetcars operate safely in the rain. In 1905 she patented her invention, which allowed the operator to control the car outside, windscreen wipers of the car trailing arm on the inside. Windshield wipers became standard equipment on cars a decade later.

The Science & Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)


Science & Environmental Policy Project (SEPP) is a research and education funded by private contributions, based in Arlington, Virginia, USA. It was founded in 1990 by atmospheric physicist S. Fred Singer.  Sepp challenges the prevailing science of climate change and ozone depletion. Sepp also questioned the science used to establish the dangers of passive smoking, arguing that the risks are exaggerated.  [dead link]

Sepp former president of the board is listed as Rockefeller University President Emeritus Frederick Seitz, , a former president of the National Academy of Sciences, now deceased

Student Environmental Action Coalition or SEAC




Student Environmental Action Coalition or SEAC

Student Action Coalition environment or SEAC (pronounced "seek") is a student and a national network of progressive organizations run youth and individuals based in the United States.

SEAC, "working together to protect our planet and our future," defines the environment as including physical, economic, political and cultural context in which we live. In challenging the power structure which threatens these environmental conditions, SEAC works to create progressive social change both locally and globally.
 SEAC was launched in 1988 by students at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It differs from other student organizations for the environment because of its broad definition of environment, which includes racism, sexism, militarism, heterosexism, economic justice and animal rights.

Although sometimes disturbing and ready to break the law, are members of the Student Environmental Action Coalition or SEAC program (as they call themselves) willing to do whatever it takes to get their message. SEAC has a bottom-up approach in which the place takes over the management of each chapter across the country. The people of Burma, Britain and Hong Kong, China, for example, participated in the Conference in 1995, SEAC. They are also included in many Internet sites dedicated to environmental and networks www.campusactivism.org www.climatechallenge.org.1, 2

Giant Buddha Figure at Kamakura, Japan

Kamakura (镰仓 市, Kamakura-shi?) Is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 kilometers (31 miles) south-southwest of Tokyo. His name Renpu (镰 府?) (Abbreviation Kamakura Bakufu (镰仓 幕府 or Kamakura shogunate?)).

Although the right Kamakura is today a relatively small, is often described in history books as a former de facto capital of Japan as the seat and the Regency shogunate during the Kamakura period. Yet, despite the destruction of the Kamakura Kyoto-based political and military force in the battle of Dan-no-career in 1185, and the failure of the emperor to get rid of the controls during the Kamakura Jokyu War Takahashi (2005) has been challenged by Kamakura is a political hegemony at the national level, in fact, exist. Takahashi says that if you close the Kamakura Kanto, not only the emperor was in fact still the king of Kansai, but this time the city was in many ways politically and administratively, the ancient capital of Kyoto. Kamakura was simply competing center of political power, economic and cultural of the country, which was the capital of Kyoto.

According to the Institute for Research on world-systems, Kamakura was the fourth largest city in the world in 1250, with 200,000 people, the largest and Japan, eclipsing Kyoto 1200.

In a March 1, 2010, the city has an estimated population of 174,016 and a density of 4,390 inhabitants per square kilometer (11,400 / km ²). The total area is 39.60 km square (15.29 square miles).

Kamakura has been designated as a city on November 3, 1939.

Kamakura is a beach which, in combination with its temples and its proximity to Tokyo, making it a popular tourist destination. Kamakura has a bay out of the surf promontory point, though inconsistent, making it less a second-class destination for surfers. It is also known for its senbei, which are grilled crispy rice cakes and sold fresh along the main shopping street.

Sustainable Silicon Valley (SSV)




Sustainable Silicon Valley (SSV)

Sustainable Silicon Valley (SSV) is a collaboration of businesses, governments and nongovernmental organizations that are identifying and responding to the pressures of environment and resources in Silicon Valley. As its first initiative, SSV committed valley leading organizations that are partners in the ISS, working toward a goal of reducing regional carbon dioxide (CO2) by 20% below 1990 levels by 2010. The SSV approach to achieve this goal is to facilitate strategies to reduce CO2 emissions through energy and fuel efficiency and using renewable energy sources
Vision: Silicon Valley thriving with a healthy environment, a vibrant economy and a socially just.

Mission: To work with the community of Silicon Valley to create a more sustainable future using an environmental management system.

Geography Served: SSV Partners in San Mateo, Santa Clara, north of Santa Cruz and southern Alameda County. Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases CO2 SSW initiative for local communities, regional and global and across all socioeconomic boundaries.

Torii gates at Fushimi Inari Shrine, Kyoto, Japan

Fushimi Inari Taisha (?) Is the head shrine of Inari, located in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan. The sanctuary is situated at the foot of a mountain, also called Inari, and includes mountain roads to many smaller shrines.

Since the start in Japan, Inari is considered the patron of the company, each of the Torii was offered by a Japanese company. First, Inari is the god of rice.

Merchants and manufacturers of Inari worship of wealth. Don torii lining footpaths are part of the panoramic view.

This shrine is said people have as many as 32 000 sub-shrines (bunsh throughout Japan.

West Harlem Environmental Action (also known as WEACT)


West Harlem Environmental Action Programme (also known as WEACT) is a Harlem, New York City-based non-profit environmental justice focuses on sustainability, public health, pollution, and other cities in the quality of life. The organization was founded in 1988 to resist the city and the North River sewage treatment plant designed for the construction of the MTA bus depot.  The argument on the basis of an increase in respiratory illnesses among residents of Harlem and other adverse health effects. WEACT lead plaintiff lawsuit was brought against the city, which was solved in 1994.
Currently WEACT is one of several groups involved in negotiations on the community benefits as part of the Columbia University expansion plan Villas Manhattan School. It 'also through the rehabilitation of abandoned brownstone converted WEACT Environmental Justice Center, which houses the office and program space, and act as proof of the various green building technologies.

The Shar'ee Role of Taqleed

The essence of guidance is derived from the Holy Qurãn - "Hudan li al-Nas" ("A Guidance for Mankind). But this guidance and its laws are based on fundamental principles, the details of which have been entrusted to and consigned by the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) in order to explain them to mankind.
For example, the Holy Qurãn says: "Aqimus-Salaat" ("establish prayer"). It does not define the method as to how the prayer should be established; how the various postures should be performed; the mode of recitation of Surah, etc. The complete method of prayer i.e. "Salaat" is explained by the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam).
"Wa 'Atuz-Zakat" ("And give charity"). Now the Zakaat amounts payable on gold, silver, cattle, land, produce, etc. are only known through the Ahadith and there is no mention of it in the Holy Qurãn.
"Wa Lillahi `ala an-Nas Hij Al-baiti" ("It is obligatory on people to perform the Hajj of the House of Allah.) Here again, the method of Tawaf, the number of circumambulations, the details regarding Arafat, Mina, Muzdalifah, the stoning at the Jimar, etc. have all been explained by the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam).
Thus it becomes imperative to understand the Holy Qurãn in the light of the Ahadith even for major obligatory acts like Salaat, Zakat and Hajj without which it is impossible to act and understand the commands of the Holy Qurãn. The believers are commanded to attain guidance from the Holy Qurãn in accordance with the details explained by the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). Therefore Allah specifies: "Whosoever obeys the Messenger has indeed obeyed Allah." This obedience to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) would in reality be obedience to Allah Himself.
A direction from the Hadith informs us:
"Also perform your prayer just as you see me perform my prayer." (Bukhari Vol. 1, p. 1076)
It is not said: "Perform your prayer in the manner you may infer from the Holy Qurãn."
Hadith is divided into different categories:
  1. The sayings of the Holy prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam),

  2. The acts and doings of the Holy prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam),

  3. The sayings, acts and doings of others, approved by the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam).

All these categories of Ahadith give guidance to the Umma.

QIYAS
When the Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) was asked a question he answered and also counter-questioned the questioner, on a similar (analogical) matter, the answer of which was known to him. On the correct reply being given by the questioner, the Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) would say: "The question you had asked is in the same category as this answer of yours."
EXAMPLE: A lady once asked: "Hajj was obligatory on my mother but she passed away. Can I perform it on her behalf?" The Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) replied: "Yes, it would be accepted on her behalf. Tell me, if your mother had a debt would you pay it." She replied in the affirmative. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said: "Fulfill what is on her behalf. Certainly, the duty and right of Allah would be more acceptable." This kind of reasoning is called Qiyas, Ijtihaad, or Istimbat in Shari`a.
These are only used in Shari`a when the Qurãnic or Traditional directives are not specifically spelt out.
The Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) sent Hadrat Mu`adh ibn Jabal (Radhiyallaahu Ánhu) as a Governor and Qaadhi to Yemen. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) gave to Hadrat Mu`adh many instructions and advices even while he held the reins and led the horse with Hadrat Mu`adh mounted on it. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) also asked: "By which law would you dispense justice." He replied: "By the Law of the Holy Qurãn."
"And if you do not find it (i.e. what you seek) in the Holy Qurãn."
He replied: "By the Prophetic Traditions."
"And if you do not find it in there also, then!"
He replied: "Then I would make Ijtihad." The Holy Prophet, (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) expressed his happiness with his reply and fully endorsed and supported his stand and thanked Allah for it. (Abu Daawud Vol 2. p. 149)
When after such an Ijtihad all the scholars agree to its conclusion, it is termed "Ijma", for it must be understood that Qiyas or Ijtihad does not prove an order or command; it only makes it evident and known. It was hidden in the Holy Qurãn or the Ahadith; the Mujtahid, by Dalalatan, 'Isharatan or Iqtdha'an, brought it in the open for the generality of people.
The person who does not have the power of Ijtihad is bound and compelled to follow a Mujtahid and this act of following a Mujtahid is termed Taqlid. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) sent Hadrat Mu`adh ibn Jabal as Qadi so that people could act upon his instructions and guidance derived from the Holy Qurãn, the Ahadith and his Ijtihad. To accept all three would in reality be obedience to Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) as mentioned in Mishkãt Sharif (p. 310). Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah (Radhiyallaahu Ánhu) reported that the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, "Who has obeyed me, has obeyed Allah and who was disobedient to me has been disobedient to Allah and who obeyed the Amir was obedient to me and who was disobedient to the Amir has been disobedient to me."

PRECEPTS, PROPOSITIONS AND THEIR KINDS
Masa'il or precepts are of four kinds:
  1. Clear instructions from the Holy Qurãn and Ahadith. No Qiyas is allowed nor Taqlid permissible. The order is to practice on the clear injunction.

  2. In such propositions where there are two injunctions, one earlier, and one later, and through historical evidence both renown, then the earlier proposition is abrogated (Mansukh), whilst the latter command is ordered. Here too Qiyas and Taqlid ~ not permitted.

  3. Those propositions that have two clear injunctions but it is not known which is earlier and which later, i.e. no historical evidence.

  4. Those propositions of which there exist no clear injunctions. Propositions 1 (and 2) are clear. the last two (Propositions 3 and 4) need explanations. Since 3 and 4 are not clear, what must a person do? If he does not practice upon them, he is yet not allowed to go free. The Qurãnic verses state: "Is man under the notion that he will be left free?"'

"Do you think that you have been created in vain?" It is not so, you have to obey Allah's command every second. Now how are we going to obey when it is not known, which is abrogated and which is not. In the fourth kind of proposition when one has no knowledge what is he going to practice on? Allah says: "Do not practice on anything without knowledge."
Thus the need of Qiyas and Ijtihad. In the third kind of proposition the need is to verify the clear injunction and in the fourth kind it is to find a clear order and command. This is a known fact that everybody does not have the ability or power to make Ijtihad and this verse also makes it clear.
Everybody makes claims of giving opinions but only that ruling is accepted which is in accordance with Shar`iah and of a Mujtahid. The verdict of a Muqallid will not be accepted. The Mujtahid makes Ijtihad while the Muqallid makes Taqlid. Even if the Mujtahid makes a mistake he is rewarded as mentioned in Bukhari, Vol. 1 p. I1092.
Here exists a doubt that there were many Mujtahids among the Sahaaba (Radhiyallaahu Ánhum), the Tabi`in and Tabi` Tibi`n; But only the 'I'ima 'Arba` i.e. Imaam Abu Hanifah, Imam Maalik, Imam Shaafi`i and Imam Ahmad (Rahmatullaahi Álayhim) are followed and Taqlid made of them. What Is wrong in following the Sahaaba (Radhiyallaahu Ánhum) whose virtues have been abundantly mentioned in the Holy Qurãn and the Ahadith?
There is no doubt that the Sahaaba (Radhiyallaahu Ánhum) have a far greater status and position than the I'ima Arba`a does not make Taqlid of any one of the I'ima Arba` ever thinking them to be greater than the Sahaaba but its simple reason is that for Taqlid it is necessary to know those injunctions in which Taqlid has to be made. The detailed knowledge which can be found in every section and chapter from Kitaab- at-Taharat to Kitab al-Fara'idh, whether it concerns acts of worship, or social and cultural aspects, in every department of knowledge, these were the first and only 'I'ima that gathered them all in every detail. They were schools of knowledge in their own right that codified knowledge in every field. We do not find such codification either of the Sahaaba or other Tabi`in. The only choice we have is to follow them. It must also be borne in mind that Allah had bestowed on them the perfection of knowledge of the Holy Qurãn and the Ahadith. It is said by Shah Waliullah (Rahmatullaahu Álayhi) in the commentary of Muwatta' Imaam Malik, p.6 that these four Imaams together have encompassed the entire knowledge of the Holy Qurãn and Ahaadith to such a degree that not a single Hadith which was reported by the Sahaaba was omitted by them.
Clarification is further required regarding another doubt in most minds: What is the necessity of making Taqlid of only one Imaam? One should be allowed to follow any of the four Imaams in the different Masa'il as was the method in the time of the Sahaaba and Tabi`in. Mazhab was not confined to a single Imam. Why must such concessions not be allowed in our times?
In the time of the Sahaaba, which was the best of times, there was no ulterior motives regarding religious questions. A question was asked to know the correct method and to practice on it. It was not asked for one's convenience as in later times. For example, A person with Wudhu touched his wife which according to the Shafi Mazhab nullifies Wudhu: Now when he is told to make Wudhu, he replies: "I make Taqlid of Imaam Abu Hanifah and it is not a breaker of Wudhu according to his Mazhab, therefore my Salaat will be valid."
Now this person vomits, which according to Hanafi Mazhab, breaks Wudhu. He is now told to make Wudhu. He replies: 'I make Taqlid of Imam Shafi`i; it is not a nullifier of Wudhu, therefore my Salaat is valid'. If this person (who has on the one hand, touched his spouse, and on the other hand, vomited) has to perform his Salaat with such a Wudhu, it would neither be correct by Imaam Abu Hanifah nor by Imam Shafi`i. In terminology this is known as Talfiq which is agreed upon unanimously to be void and not permitted. This is not Taqlid but following one's passions and desires for one's personal convenience which lead one astray. The necessity of following a Mazhab, Imam or Mujtahid is that one would not fall into the temptations of following one's own desires. The Holy Qurãn states:
'And do not follow desires. You would be led astray from the path of Allah."
Thus the need of following only one Imam.
For centuries we have heard of great scholars, jurists, 'Ulama' and Auliya who had the treasures of knowledge, who were in their personal capacities libraries with encyclopedic knowledge. Their piety constituted perfect examples in emulation of the Sahaaba. Their entire life was spent in accordance with the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). They also followed the 'I'ima Arba'` and it would not be incorrect to say that it was because of this Taqlid that they attained the heights of perfection.
Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh) is confined to the four schools. Those that do not confirm to any one of them are called Ahle Hadith or Ghair Muqallid.

L'Homme et L'Environnement (English: Man and the Environment)




L'Homme et L'Environnement (English: Man and the Environment)
 
Man and Environment (in English: The man and the environment) is a small nongovernmental organization based in Antananarivo, Madagascar, with a mission to develop economically and ecologically sustainable management of natural resources in some parts of Madagascar.

The organization works in five different areas outside of Antananarivo, with the common goal of ecotourism, medicinal plants, and experimental agriculture as an alternative to the degradation of the environment for local communities. One of the main areas they serve is Vohimana Reserve, near Andasibe-Mantadia National Park.

Humans and the Environment approves the volunteers and researchers in the long term and short-lived, for a fee. Some of the Department of French is preferable but not essential.

Japanese Lanterns

The Andon is a lamp made of paper stretched over a bamboo frame, wood or metal. The paper protected the flame from the wind. The burning of oil in a stone or ceramic support with a cotton wick, provided that light. Rapeseed oil has been popular. Candles were also used, but their high price made them less popular. A cheaper alternative is the sardine oil.

The Andon became popular in the Edo period. Andon was earlier this pocket, and it can also be placed on a stand or hung on a wall. It was the most common okiandon inside. Many had a box-shaped with a vertical inner surface of the light. Some had a drawer at the bottom for easy filling and lighting. A handle on top makes phones. A committee was Enshu Andon. An explanation which he attributed to Kobori Enshu, who lived in the late Azuchi-Momoyama period and early Edo period. Tubular in shape, he had an opening instead of a drawer. Other black, was the Ariake Andon, a bedside lamp. Kakeandon the attic of a store that is often called the merchant, was a common sight in cities.

The term Andon Hiru, or "day of fire" means someone or something that seemed to serve no purpose. Dramatize the story of the forty-seven ronin, Oishi Yoshio is often given this description.

Macedonian Ecological Society (MES)




Macedonian Ecological Society (MES)

Macedonian Ecological Society (MES) was founded in 1972 in what was then called the Socialist Republic of Macedonia.

Green Belt Movement




Green Belt Movement

The Green Belt Movement is a grassroots NGO based in indigenous Nairobi, Kenya, which takes a holistic approach to development by focusing on environmental conservation, community development and capacity building. Professor Wangari Maathai founded the organization in 1977 under the auspices of the National Council of Women of Kenya.

The Green Belt Movement organizes women in rural Kenya to plant trees, combating deforestation, restoring their main source of cooking fuel, to generate revenue, and stop soil erosion. Maathai has incorporated advocacy and empowerment, eco-tourism, and only economic development in the Green Belt Movement.

Since Maathai started the movement in 1977, more than 40 million trees were planted. Over 30,000 women trained in forestry, processing industry, beekeeping and other foods, allowing them to earn money while preserving their land and resources. Communities in Kenya (men and women) were motivated and organized both prevent further environmental destruction and restore what was damaged.

In 2004, Wangari Maathai, Nobel Peace Prize - to become the first African woman to win Nobel Peace Prize - for his work with the Greenbelt Movement. His book, The Green Belt Movement, published by Lantern Books. Maathai is a leader in the movement ecofeminist

Zalul Environmental Association




Zalul Environmental Association

Zalul Environmental Association is a group based in Israel for the Environment was founded in 1999 in order to protect the oceans and rivers of Israel through conservation, activism, research, information and education. Zalul seeks to end the waste of sewage and other toxic wastes into rivers of Israel through legal and regulatory reforms.

The Concept of Taqlid Simplified

By Mawlana Khalid Dhorat


Taqlid refers to the practice of an unqualified, lay person (in a specific field of specialization) submitting to and accepting the authority of an expert in that field, without demanding proof and justification for every view, opinion or verdict expressed by such an expert authority.
Imitation is a natural tendency of human existence, practiced by millions of people worldwide in every facet of life. The simplest and most tangible example of Taqlid is that of a child learning his basic alphabets at school. Every child learning his alphabets is unconsciously practicing Taqlid. A learner driver taking instructions from a driving instructor is practicing Taqlid. People going to a specialist doctor for medical treatment and following his instructions is another example of Taqlid. A lay person soliciting a legal opinion from an advocate or following the advice of a tax consultant is another common case of Taqlid. A client at an engineering firm, asking for the engineer's advice on complex engineering calculations is yet another instance of Taqlid in action. The millions of 'facts' in the myriad of sciences such as astronomy, archaeology, etc. are all distinct examples of Taqlid. Who ever questions the 'fact' that the sun is really 93 million miles away from the earth! It is taken for granted that this is the findings of the 'experts' in these fields and everyone simply accepts it as such. School teachers teach these to their pupils as 'gospel truth' and children learn and memorize these 'facts' with the hope of succeeding in their exams. There are countless such examples of Taqlid in everyday existence.
By way of extension, Taqlid is the easy option for ordinary people In the context of Islamic Fiqh or Law too. Taqlid in Islam simply refers to accepting and following the verdicts of expert scholars of Islamic Fiqh in their exposition and interpretation of Islamic Law, without demanding from them an in-depth explanation of the intricate processes (Ijtihad) required in arriving at such a verdict. It simply means that ordinary folk do not have to do Ijtihad. The duty of ordinary people is to trustingly accept the authority of the learned scholars in this matter and act upon their verdicts.
In this sense, Taqlid is a great blessing for common people, for it is beyond the capacity of everyone to understand the extremely complex and complicated mechanics of Ijtihad. The ability to do Ijtihad requires many long years of study and erudition and a great deal of exertion in acquiring a mastery of various Islamic sciences.

Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel (Hebrew: החברה להגנת הטבע‎, HaHevra LeHaganat HaTeva)




Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel (Hebrew: החברה להגנת הטבע‎, HaHevra LeHaganat HaTeva)

Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel (in Hebrew: החברה להגנת הטבע, HaHevra LeHaganat HaTeva), or the SPNI, an Israeli environmental non-profit organization committed to preserving the plants, animals and natural environments, which represent the biological diversity by protecting lands and water necessary for their survival, and is the oldest and largest organization of environmental organization in Israel.
FNIH is most comparable with the Sierra Club in the United States.

Taqlid

Q: At our campus several students are actively promoting the ideology that one should only follow the ‘Qur’an and Sunnah’, not one of the four Imaams. They especially criticise the Hanafis who do not raise their hands upto the ears before going into ruku, etc. This is causing much confusion. Could you guide us in this aspect?

A: It is clear from the question that the impression being given by the promoters of the said ideology is that if you follow one of the four Imaams of Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence), you are not following the Qur’an and Sunnah. This is utterly baseless. Understand the fallacy of this argument from the following example: Every citizen of the country is required to obey the laws of the land. Those laws are recorded and available to every citizen. However, a person who wishes to conduct some major business goes to a senior counsel to enquire what legal procedures he will have to follow and what factors he must take into consideration to ensure that he does not contravene any law. He then follows the advice of the senior counsel and conducts his business accordingly. If anybody objects that this person is following the senior counsel and not the law of the land, such an objection will be regarded as extremely foolish and not worth listening to. It is obvious that the person acting according to the advice of the senior counsel is following expert advice about what the law says. In fact, if the businessmen decided to go directly to the law books himself and do what appeared to him to be the correct procedure, he will probably end up making a mess of everything. Thus the proper course is for him to refer to an expert.

MASTERY TESTIFIED TO BY SCHOLARS
Allah Ta’ala has commanded us to follow those of knowledge. Those who follow one of the four Imaams of Fiqh have chosen to follow very highly qualified senior counsels and expert jurists who possessed such expertise in Islamic Jurisprudence which all the great scholars of the past 12 centuries have testified to. Imaam Abu Hanifa (R.A.) and Imaam Malik (R.A.) were both Tabiees (those who had seen a Sahabi). Imaam Malik compiled his famous work of Hadith titled Al Mu’atta. Imaam Abu Hanifa (R.A.) compiled a book of Hadith named Kitaabul Athaar. This book was compiled from a collection of 400,000 Ahadith. Imaam Shafi (R.A.) compiled the great work titled Kitaabul Umm and other books of jurisprudence. Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal (R.A.) placed before the world his collection of thousands of Ahadith known as Musnad Ahmad. The world attested to his knowledge and mastery. Apart from their vast knowledge, all the four Imaams were known to be on a very high level of taqwa (piety). Thus those who follow any one of these Imaams can do so with complete confidence.

TRANSLATE ONE AAYAH
Those who claim that they are following the Qur’an and Sunnah directly should take a moment to ponder over the reality of their claim. The Qur’an and Ahadith are both in Arabic. The overwhelming majority of those who follow this ideology and claim to refer directly to the Qur’an and Sunnah cannot directly translate even one aayah of the Qur’an or one Hadith correctly. How can it ever be imagined that such a person will be able to extract the detailed masaa’il (laws) from the original sources. In reality such people merely follow some novice “lawyer” of this age who claims to extract the masaa’il directly from the Qur’an and Hadith. The expertise of the novice “lawyers” of today is less than a drop in the ocean when compared to the vast knowledge and expertise of the four great Imaams of Fiqh. Almost every single person today who claims to refer directly to the Qur’an and Ahadith, and who has also acquired some knowledge of Deen, still refers to the views of various scholars of the recent past or those of the earlier era, in most masaa’il. Hence while those who make taqleed (follow) one of the four Imaams refer to one great expert, those who claim to go directly to the Qur’an and Sunnah make taqleed of a host of people, many of whom do not remotely compare to the four Imaams.
For a detailed discussion of this subject, refer to the book Legal Status of following a Madhab by Justice Mufti Taqi Uthmani Saheb.

MADHABS Introduction

Taqlid refers to the practice of an unqualified, lay person (in a specific field of specialization) submitting to and accepting the authority of an expert in that field, without demanding proof and justification for every view, opinion or verdict expressed by such an expert authority.
Imitation is a natural tendency of human existence, practiced by millions of people worldwide in every facet of life. The simplest and most tangible example of Taqlid is that of a child learning his basic alphabets at school. Every child learning his alphabets is unconsciously practicing Taqlid. A learner driver taking instructions from a driving instructor is practicing Taqlid. People going to a specialist doctor for medical treatment and following his instructions is another example of Taqlid. A lay person soliciting a legal opinion from an advocate or following the advice of a tax consultant is another common case of Taqlid. A client at an engineering firm, asking for the engineer's advice on complex engineering calculations is yet another instance of Taqlid in action. The millions of 'facts' in the myriad of sciences such as astronomy, archaeology, etc. are all distinct examples of Taqlid. Who ever questions the 'fact' that the sun is really 93 million miles away from the earth! It is taken for granted that this is the findings of the 'experts' in these fields and everyone simply accepts it as such. School teachers teach these to their pupils as 'gospel truth' and children learn and memorize these 'facts' with the hope of succeeding in their exams. There are countless such examples of Taqlid in everyday existence.
By way of extension, Taqlid is the easy option for ordinary people in the context of Islamic Fiqh or Law too. Taqlid in Islam simply refers to accepting and following the verdicts of expert scholars of Islamic Fiqh in their exposition and interpretation of Islamic Law, without demanding from them an in-depth explanation of the intricate processes (Ijtihad) required in arriving at such a verdict. It simply means that ordinary folk do not have to do Ijtihad. The duty of ordinary people is to trustingly accept the authority of the learned scholars in this matter and act upon their verdicts.
In this sense, Taqlid is a great blessing for common people, for it is beyond the capacity of everyone to understand the extremely complex and complicated mechanics of Ijtihad. The ability to do Ijtihad requires many long years of study and erudition and a great deal of exertion in acquiring a mastery of various Islamic sciences.
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